Are you here to get the details about structured literacy?
Let’s dive in!
For years I considered myself a balanced literacy teacher.
And it’s not really a surprise. I was in college when balanced literacy came into existence (1996).
I entered the classroom during its heyday (1999).
And all the coursework I did for my master’s degree in Curriculum & Instruction (with a focus on reading) revolved around a balanced literacy approach.
So why am I here talking about structured literacy?
I couldn’t ignore it anymore.
I wanted to, believe me. I was sure that structured literacy meant drill-and-kill, phonics only, cringeworthy decodable books, and tedious scripted curricula.
Everything I’d spoken against.
But guess what?
Turns out I was wrong.
What is structured literacy?
Structured literacy was a term coined in 2016 by the International Dyslexia Association.
“The term ‘Structured Literacy’ is not designed to replace Orton Gillingham, Multi-Sensory or other terms in common use. It is an umbrella term designed to describe all of the programs that teach reading in essentially the same way.”Hal Malchow, International Dyslexia Association
Structured literacy uses explicit, systematic teaching to teach the following elements:
What are those? We’ll get to that in a minute. But first …
Why do we need structured literacy?
For years, I was convinced that structured literacy was overkill.
After all, my students had thrived with a balanced literacy approach (I thought).
My oldest five kids learned to read using a balanced literacy approach (I taught them to read before they started school).
What really opened my eyes was learning that while balanced literacy may be successful for some, it doesn’t work with everyone.
When I learned that about 40% of kids can learn to read no matter how you teach them, but that a greater percentage need a structured literacy approach, things started making sense.
That student I had that couldn’t read past level A no matter what I tried? She needed explicit phonemic awareness so she could sound out words.
That little boy I taught who listened with rapt attention to my read alouds but struggled to get words off the page? He needed systematic phonics with engaging decodable text.
Have you seen the ladder of reading?
Nancy Young, an experienced educator and speaker with extensive knowledge of evidence-based approaches to teaching reading, did her research and found that many students need a structured approach to be successful readers.
As in, 60% of students.
As I (oh so reluctantly) learned more, I found that structured literacy does not need to mean boring.
It doesn’t mean that we kill the love of reading before it begins.
It means that we teach the essentials in a hands-on, engaging way.
What are the components of structured literacy?
Phonology is the sound structure of spoken words. It refers to phonological and phonemic awareness. Phonological awareness includes the ability to rhyme, count words in a sentence, and clap syllables.
Phonemic awareness is an important component of phonological awareness and involves the smallest parts of words: their individual sounds (phonemes). For example, in the word fish we have four letters but just three phonemes: /f/ /i/ /sh/.
The fancy explanation of “sound-symbol” is mapping phonemes to graphemes.
If you’re looking for plain English, sound-symbol has to do with knowing what sounds go with which letters. For example, b is used to represent /b/. A more complex example is that igh is used to represent /i/.
(In other words … phonics.)
Sound-symbol is important for both decoding and encoding. Plain English? Reading (decoding) and spelling (encoding).
Have you heard of the six syllable types?
- open syllable
- closed syllable
- silent-e syllable
- r-controlled vowel syllable
- consonant-le syllable
- vowel pair syllable
I’ll be honest … I did not teach syllable types when I taught beginning readers. This felt boring and way more than they needed to know to be successful readers.
Little did I know that learning the six syllable types goes a long way in helping children read long, unfamiliar words.
Enough with the big words already, right?
A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a language. Morphemes include roots, base words, prefixes, and suffixes.
Believe it or not, we teach morphology in kindergarten. (When you teach kids that adding s to a word makes it “more than one” you’re teaching morphology.)
Of course, it gets more complicated as children move through the grades.
Syntax has to do with the way we structure language to convey meaning. Syntax is all about grammar and sentence structure.
Semantics has to do with meaning. When we teach semantics, we teach comprehension of written language.
What does structured literacy look like in the classroom?
I’m all about getting practical, and I won’t leave you hanging.
Today’s post was just a quick overview.
In the next month, Becky Spence (This Reading Mama) and I are going to get specific.
Stay tuned for the rest of our 7-part series!
Want to share?
Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5Part 6Part 7
- Effective literacy instruction (International Dyslexia Association)
- Structured literacy instruction: The basics (Reading Rockets)
Great read, and I love your blog! I have been reading into structured literacy and synthetic phonics instruction this summer. I am wondering if you could give some ideas on what a kindergarten structured literacy block may look like. Thanks so much!
This is a great question, Christine! We go into this quite a bit in the final module of our online course, Teaching Every Reader. Here’s one of our suggestions for kindergarten (assuming you have a full day program).
10 m – whole class phonological/phonemic awareness
15 m – whole group interactive read aloud
15 m – small group phonics #1 (centers for the rest of the class)
15 m – whole class shared reading
15 m – small group phonics #2 (centers for rest of the class)
15 m – whole group interactive read aloud #2
15 m – small group phonics #3 (centers for the rest of the class)
15 m – independent reading time with support or partner reading (likely will not start until at least halfway through the year… children can work on their decodable books)
As we explain in the course, we think that small group phonics instruction makes more sense than whole class because your students will be at such different levels. Comprehension and vocabulary will be the focus of your interactive read alouds.
I hope that helps!
Hi Anna, I couldn’t resist to comment, but first, I’d like to tell you how much as a retired teacher I’ve appreciated your willingness to share your instructional resources and knowledge. Thank you!
Literacy First embodies all of the components that you spoke about in your blog post. It, of course is not a cure all for a student’s reading weaknesses, but it can be a new beginning by providing that much needed road map and support for not only the student but the teacher. When I say road map, I’m referring to a phonological and phonics continuum that begins in PK/Kindergarten. When the balanced reading approach was introduced in the 90’s, as a veteran teacher I wondered how in the world these students were going to learn to read without some explicit and systematic approach. Would it be by osmosis? It was the new wave, yet some of us teachers clung to the old way, but worked on ways to incorporate this new phenomena into our teaching repertoire. Had the balanced reading approach been combined with an explicit and systematic approach, in all probability it would have satisfied the needs of a great many students—most definitely the weaker reader. The education pendulum is constantly shifting every 5-7 years–often for the better, but at times not so. And true to the adage, one method does not and has never fit all as does there will always be something about one method versus another that teachers do or not support. However, it was refreshing to read your post that an explicit and systematic approach has a place in providing successful reading experiences for the struggling and middle of the road reader! Kudos to your discovery!
Thank you so much for sharing your perspective, Norma! I do agree that there is not one method/program that will serve every child perfectly. We always have to combine whatever curriculum we are using with the art of teaching. I have no doubt that you perfected your art during your many years in the classroom!
I’ve been following your latest series here on podcast and the blog and it is fascinating to me! I fell into the category of kids for whom reading was pretty effortless. We homeschool our 5yo son and he requires much more explicit instruction. By a fortunate coincidence, we stumbled upon Logic of English and the more I watched their instructional videos, the more I became enamored with structured literacy. He is thriving with their program and it is astonishing to me to hear him rattle off all the sounds for the phonograms he knows. And after reading Uncovering the Logic of English, our “illogical” spelling suddenly made so much more sense! So it’s fun to hear you talk about these topics which are so relevant in our daily lives right now. And I’m excited to see what new resources you are developing for your website in the coming months!
This is great to hear, Anne! I have read several of Denise Eide’s books and am impressed with her clear, logical approach.
Sounds very much like Project Read. Many, many, many moon ago (late 90s, early 2000s) I taught PR to my sixth graders. Now that I am home with my own kids, I find that what they are learning in school isn’t structured enough (probably because they are doing virtual learning because of COVID). So, I am searching for used copies of Project Read Phonics guides for the primary grades (three of my five are kinders and 1st grade) because the guides I kept are a bit too advanced (meant for upper elementary). I wasn’t completely sold on the entire program when I was in the classroom, BUT the phonics portion was a proven approach to word attack skills (based on my past experience with the curriculum). I will be homeschooling two of three the upcoming academic year to shore up their foundation. I’ve pulled old workbooks, purchased some phonics bundles on TPT as well as new commercial workbooks, and purchased three different reading curriculums to review between now and summer. It’s amazing how the language arts pendulum swings back and forth in education.
This is interesting to hear, Gina, thank you! I’m not familiar with Project Read, but it sounds like a solid program!
Lynn M Jungen
You make my heart overflow with joy and thankfulness. This is why we teach! I’m so thankful the next generation of teachers is supplying the foundation for teaching the next-next generation of teachers. Blessings to all of you!
Mrs. Lynn M. Jungen
So glad you have seen the light, so to speak. Reading is essentially decoding, or using symbols, i.e. letters, to represent spoken language. Mr. Jungen and I intuitively knew that phonology and sound/symbol relationships were essential to early reading/ decoding, but were not part of the curriculum at that time. (We don’t need to say how far back that was!) We supplemented what was in the curriculum so our students could break the code, and I’m still using much of what we created back then. I’m so glad that you are providing information plus learning tools to enable our students to become effective and life-long readers. God is truly blessing your work. Please keep it up.
God’s richest blessings to you and your family.
It’s such a joy to see you here, Mrs. Jungen! (For anyone reading this comment, Mrs. Jungen and her husband taught me in 1st through 4th grade … back in the 80’s.) I have been doing a lot of soul searching lately as I try to figure out WHY the less structured, balanced approach was so appealing to me … especially when I myself learned to read through a structured, phonics-based approach and have always loved to read. When I think back to the days in your classroom, I remember pulling out books from the tall cupboard whenever I had extra free time. And I remember Mr. Jungen reading aloud every day. Thank you for giving me a strong foundation!
I have an adult daughter with Learning Disabilities and Physical Disabilities. These include hearing (makes it hard to read when you hear “f” as “p”!!), dyspraxia, and more. We pulled her out of the third grade and homeschooled for several years. That gave me time to learn HOW she learned, and how to help her succeed. She now has a PhD and is considered the international expert in her field.
I was so frustrated at schools – public and private – that couldn’t comprehend her issues that I now tutor other kids with Learning Disabilities. It is SO frustrating to have a clearly smart kid who simply CANNOT READ!!!!! I use a phonics based approach, include lots of games, hands on, movement – whatever works with that particular child. I have been using a lot of your materials since I found your site.
I am delighted to see you working on this!!!!! All kids do NOT learn the same way, and we need educators to really understand and act on this! Bless you! I look forward to seeing where you go with this, and hope you come up with things that can help me help my students succeed!
Tips for working virtually would also be most appreciated!!!!! Thanks!!!
Wow, this is amazing to hear, Beth! Thank you so much for sharing your experience with your daughter! Your approach to teaching your learners with learning disabilities sounds spot on. I hope my future posts and resources will be helpful to you!
Jessica M Gabriel
Your transition in thinking to embrace structured literacy is why I will continue to follow you! I teach predominantly that 10-15% of kids who need the explicit instruction with lots of repetition and am lucky to get some of that 40-50% bracket who just need the structured approach. So excited to see the literacy community shifting towards understanding what will benefit more of our children in their attempts to unlock the magical code of reading!
Thank you so much, Jessica! Your comment and feedback mean a lot to me!
Thanks for the great article. Looking forward to reading the rest of your series. We’re homeschooling our daughters this year and next, and I’ve been teaching my daughter to read (using a lot of your products!) and we’ve taken a phonics approach. It’s definitely a little slower, but I can already see that it’ll pay off in the long run. Glad to see more material from you (and This Reading Mama!) on decodables and a phonics first approach!
What I’ve heard is that with this approach you “start slow to grow.” It does feel slower at first, like yo noted, but yes … it does pay off! And it keeps kids from hitting a wall when the three cueing strategies no longer work.
Thank you for spreading awareness of structured literacy! I work with 4th grade students with learning disabilities and I have had to teach myself how to teach literacy. I love the work you put into this site and thank you for helping me better my professional knowledge.
My first years of teaching were with third, fourth, and fifth graders, and I sure wish I knew then what I know now. I had some struggling readers, and I really didn’t know where to begin. This is definitely good information for all grade levels, as you point out, Lyn!
Yes and yes! I graduated undergrad in 1990 when Whole Language was all the rage. Although I still love some of the components of whole language, I have found that a structured literacy approach is most thorough…and more successful… for children who are learning to read. As with all things, there are outliers to the model, but the model tends to be successful approach for most kiddos. (My opinion is based on 28 years in the classroom with kids ages Pre-k 3 to 2nd grade. ). Thank you for sharing!
I am right there with you, Kirsten! Thank you so much for sharing your feedback and experience!
I have been teaching structured literacy for 29 years. Not only does it support those children who struggle with the traditional balanced approach, it allows the “40% group” to become stronger, more fluent readers.
What do you suggest I use for homeschooling my 4 year old to read?
Don’t forget to include “playful” experiences that teach letters and sounds in addition to more traditional means of instruction like workbooks. Being able to “hear” beginning, middle, and ending sounds as well as rhyme and syllables in words are key skills before “sounding” out short words. Also, get a list of the Dolch 1 sight word list for non-decodable words. Incorporate those into games, too. The best advice? Keep following Anna…she has so many wonderful learning games and ideas!
Thanks so much for your support, Kirsten!
Check out this post, Catherine, and if you have questions, comment beneath it. It helps you see what foundational skills are necessary, and where to get started. https://www.themeasuredmom.com/teaching-preschoolers-to-read/
YES! I plan to address that in the coming posts as well.
I think it must have been This Reading Mama a few days ago, or maybe it was you, but I saw All about reading and All about spelling recommended. I’ve read a lot about Logic of English as well, and wondered about your thoughts on that program. It’s pricy for sure, but I am a lover of Logic and it sounds great. Thank you so much! My son is 3.5 right now, and we are delaying putting him in kindergarten (thanks covid) but also considering homeschooling. He already knows all his letters and sounds, so I’m looking into next steps. I’ve learned so much from you and This Reading Mama!
Hi Rebekah! All About Reading and All About Spelling are good, solid programs. I have not used the Logic of English program, so I can’t fully speak to it, but I an familiar with the author’s resources and can definitely say that it aligns with the science of reading.
Although I have an elementary education degree, I had almost no teaching reading experience until this school year when I kept my kindergartener home. All this information from here started coming out about the same time I was watching my son struggle with reading and wow did it make a difference. As a matter of fact, I wonder how so many kids learn any other other way without using the phonics coding. Thanks for all your work with this! I will be following! I’d like to know how all this connects to preschoolers…are there concepts that can be started early, to prepare them for kindergarten?
Great question, Naomi! I’ve recently updated my post about teaching preschoolers to read. I’d check that out and then comment there if you have follow up questions: https://www.themeasuredmom.com/teaching-preschoolers-to-read/
Sandra G Kindler
Excellent article, Anna!
Thank you so much, Sandra!
Wow! What a timely post, as I’m reading The Knowledge Gap by Natalie Wexler and learning more about structured literacy vs balanced literacy. I’ve taught my oldest to read, who likely falls into that top 5% on the ladder of reading, and am currently teaching my middle child to read with a mixture of phonics and your sight word books(pre-update). I’m looking forward to your future posts so I can better teach my middle and youngest, once she gets there!
Yes, I’ve read some of that book and look forward to finishing it! Thanks so much for your feedback, Gabby – I think you’ll get a load of value out of this series!
I enjoyed reading this information. I took notes:). I am looking forward to applying this information in my classroom, along with my tutoring business.
Thank you so much for your feedback, Shonda!
I just read an article this morning about how teachers have been teaching reading wrong by using the balanced literacy approached. It was an eye opener for me! I entered the classroom in 1999 as well, and I couldn’t believe that we had been doing it this way for so long if the science based research shows that this isn’t the way kids learn to read. The article was talking about using structured phonics. I’m excited to read your other posts about this.
Hello. Where can I find the article you are referring to? Thank you.
Yes … I am actually publishing a post soon about the difference between balanced and structured literacy, and I’ll be addressing these very things!
What’s the source please and thanks 😊
I taught this way for many years & continue to use it with kids that have dyslexia or struggling readers. Unfortunately, the school I left decided to use Guided Reading & more students are not able to decode words. Keep encouraging teachers to use Structured Literacy.
I’m a reading specialist and literacy coach and have been teaching for over 20 years. I’ve always used a balanced literacy approach with guided reading and have been very successful with my students. I do believe that a small percentage of kids need structured literacy, for those with Dyslexia, for example. However, I do not believe that it is good to use for an entire class because it really holds back those readers who can use reading strategies to read. I don’t think that any approach should be considered a one size fits all approach. Structured literacy should be for kids who need that type of explicit instruction. I’ve taught mainly in low income Title I schools in 3 states and I always have the most success (and the most fun) teaching and modeling good reading strategies instruction.
I’m sorry to hear that, Kate. Guided reading is very appealing … unfortunately, it often is part of a program that does not included explicit, structured phonics instruction (as I can state from experience!). While I don’t think that teachers need to necessarily give up guided reading completely, I think we need to restructure our small group lessons to focus on what matters most. I look forward to sharing a series on that in the coming months!
This is true. I’ve always included a word work or phonics or even phonemic awareness instruction component IN guided reading group IF it’s needed (typically the lower groups or struggling readers). It doesn’t have to be one or the other. It should be a fit for the current students in the class. One year I might do more explicit instruction and the next, less. The one size fits all structured, scripted programs don’t allow for creativity by teachers. They also don’t allow for teachers to tailor instruction to individual needs which is what we should be doing as teachers
I’d like to address this quote from your comment: “The one size fits all structured, scripted programs don’t allow for creativity by teachers. They also don’t allow for teachers to tailor instruction to individual needs which is what we should be doing as teachers.” These have always been my concerns as well. This is where we have to realize that the science of reading and the art of teaching must BOTH be present. Strong teachers will understand what exactly their students need to learn, and they will teach it explicitly, BUT they will also differentiate as needed (particularly in small groups) and bring their own creativity/personality to their lessons. Science of reading/structured literacy advocates need to realize that, or we risk this being another pendulum swing. Thankfully there are strong voices advocating for this!
I think there are strong advocates on both sides of the issue. I just think that using complete structured literacy detracts from meaning. When you’re constantly decoding words, it actually hinders fluency. Correct in that strong teachers differentiate but how does one differentiate in small groups with a structured approach? And how do you know at what reading level or what grade level a child is reading? With guided reading, you can easily take a quick running record and have a good idea of reading level. With explicit instruction, how do you gauge that? This is a problem when parents get a report card with good grades but the child is actually reading below grade level. Parents get confused. Teachers around where I live (a very heavily unionized state/commonwealth) don’t communicate enough. Often grades don’t really reflect a child’s actual reading ability … such as with a DRA, QRI, or F&P assessment. What are the assessments with the structured approach?
And reading for meaning and comprehension is the whole goal of reading, not just word calling or decoding.
So much to address here, which I will be in a future series about small group teaching within structured literacy. I am not against guided reading per se, but I do disagree with using books that require three cueing to solve words. I recently published a blog post about rethinking running records, which you might want to check out. As for differentiating, teachers focus on different foundational skills. Some structured literacy teachers do not agree with guided reading “levels.” I am on the fence about them currently, since I feel that the early levels are not helpful, but that later levels may be useful for differentiation. As for assessment, check this out: https://www.corelearn.com/assessing-reading-multiple-measures-2nd-edition/
I’m happy to check these out. I’m always happy to learn new/different information but it’s hard when I’ve had so much success with struggling readers and higher level readers with a balanced approach and guided reading. I agree that in Kindergarten, a more structured approach is a good idea… I’ve had many struggling readers over the years who have come into my classroom below and left above grade level. I think part of the problem may be that many teachers don’t do guided reading correctly. They do round Robin or something. Guided reading is technically supposed to be time for kids in small group to have one on one instruction with the teacher. As for the cueing systems M, S, V, I’ve found many different strategies to use and I typically do one at a time. Some are phonics based like Chunky Monkey, for example. But the meaning must come from meaning and structure type clues like Tryin’ Lion or Skippy Frog . I made one up myself “Make sense Mermaid.” If you don’t use running records, how else can you effectively analyze miscues? l’ll check these out- thanks.
Anna, I am another victim of poor instructional philosophies taught in my credential programs leading to poor instructional practices taught to my 1st grade students. I went through my credential programs in the mid-90’s when Whole Language was all the rage in CA. After receiving my initial credential, I started a Special Ed program at the same university. By her own admission, my director didn’t even know what phonics was!
Thank the Lord I started working with a colleague who introduced me to Direct Instruction curricula, created by a man named Seigfried “Zig” Engelmann in the 1970’s (he was a professor at the University of Oregon for decades). His goal was to take the principles of ABA and apply them to curriculum development. The result has been decades of successful instruction with students & adults from all differing backgrounds, including (but by no means limited to) people with dyslexia. Although the design of the curricula varies from many of the Structured Literacy programs, all components are included throughout the scope & sequence of the programs. By ensuring that the curriculum we teach is explicit, systematic, rigorous and research-validated, we will see demonstrable results in all the students we teach.
Thank you so much for your willingness to look critically at your previous practices and understanding the potential harm that our students face when taught from a Balanced Literacy/Whole Language approach to reading instruction. For those most vulnerable to print, time is of the essence and not a moment should be wasted by teaching unproven or disproven strategies. I wouldn’t want a surgeon operating on me who only learned their techniques from a YouTube video or a weekend seminar series and neither should our children have to be taught by educators trained in similar fashion.
“Practice doesn’t make perfect, but perfect practice does”
Wow, that’s eye-opening that your director didn’t even know what phonics was! This statement in your comment resonated the most with me: “For those most vulnerable to print, time is of the essence and not a moment should be wasted by teaching unproven or disproven strategies.” Yes! This above all is what led me to reexamine my practice … learning that my approach does not work for many students. Thank you so much for weighing in, Brett!
THANK YOU for such a clear, concise explanation. As an educator who went through an elem. education program in the late 80’s/early 90’s…during the “Whole Language” chapter of reading education. We were all so passionate about encouraging the love of good literature, and it seemed that reading would just naturally happen. Of course that’s a tiny piece of it, but as the diagram so clearly shows, is only effective instruction for a small sliver of students. MANY years later, as a tutor working with struggling readers, this ALL makes so much more sense.
Two years ago, I signed up for your “Teaching Every Reader” online course. Due to some extenuating life circumstances, I didn’t complete it. I’m wondering if it will touch on all the pieces you listed in this post?
Yes, absolutely, Lisa! Teaching Every Reader is currently getting a complete update. We’ll re-open the course in early May. So I’d wait to look at it until then; we’ll be releasing the new modules over a period of six weeks.
Thanks so much…I’ll look forward to going through the sessions in May.
I’m so glad you have “crossed over”! I’ve been on a structured literacy journey for the last year and have used your materials for many years. Once you really start to educate yourself, it’s a no brainer 😊
Once you really start to educate yourself, it’s a no brainer 😊 … agree 100%, Heather! It all starts to make sense.
Thank you for this! Back in the classroom after 10 years of not being in the classroom and hearing so much of this science reading but have not been able to dive into it yet. I graduated right after you in 2000 and started my teaching career!
You’re in the right place, Christina! I recommend listening so some of my recent podcast episodes to help you get caught up. They are also available as videos on Facebook… https://www.facebook.com/themeasuredmom/videos/?ref=page_internal
You have done an excellent job of explaining this! I am also impressed that you are willing to admit that you (and the rest of us) were wrong about how to teach reading. I have been working with dyslexics for over 10 years and have tried to explain this to my colleagues. But it also took me a long time to give up some of the balanced literacy strategies. I’m glad that this information is making headway. I’m looking forward to your next installments.
Yes … it has taken me a long time to give up some of those balanced literacy strategies, too. It’s definitely a new way of looking at things … but once you find it you can’t go back! Thanks so much for your feedback, Laura!
Im a retired grade one teacher, and am tutoring students with reading difficulties. Some are dyslexic and others are in French immersion and floundering reading and writing in English. I started using phonological awareness activities in my classroom back in the early 2000. Six years ago, after retiring I took two OG courses. Now I use a combination of all my training with the students I tutor. I live in northern BC and so grateful I can purchase materials from you. Many thanks, Barb in Smithers BC
I plan to use All About Reading with my student soon. Do you know if this curriculum uses structured literacy?
Yes, it’s a very good choice, Ashley!
This is fantastic to hear, Barb! I’m taking my own OG training in June. I can’t wait to learn more!
This is amazing! This is exactly what I’ve spent the past year learning as I earn my Dyslexia Practitioner certification. You break everything down into bite-size pieces that are easily understood and not too overwhelming. Thank you so much for sharing your knowledge with us.
This is wonderful to hear, Susan – thank you so much!
Very well-written article, I haven’t seen anything like this before. I finally understood the real messing of literature. I have been using this website for quite a long time and it always helps me understand my work content. Thanks for sharing this.
Thank you so much for your feedback, Michael!
Donald Errol Knight
I agree. I’ve also followed this blog for some time and, along with those of This Reading Mama/Becky Spence, find them extremely useful. What stood out in this blog were the words ‘teach the code.’
Thank you so much for your feedback!
Love this! I’ve never heard of the term before but this is mostly how my mentor teachers taught thus the practice I picked up. I’m eager to follow along with this series.
I’m so glad to hear that you’re already seeing this in the classroom!